Running short of medical supplies, some teams had to work with any available resources, constructing splints out of cardboard and reusing latex gloves. Additional research on the MW 9.0 earthquake in Japan [11th March 2011 (UTC)] and the MW 8.0 earthquake in the eastern Solomon Islands [6th February 2013 (UTC)] supports the aforementioned hypothesis. Originality/value-This is original research that takes a unique look on enhancing compliance with building code, regulations and standards by developing a framework to aid easy code compliance to achieve a safe built environment. The country also suffered from shortages of fuel and potable water even before the disaster.  An estimated three million people were affected by the quake. The nations capital, Port-au-Prince, a densely populated city located about 15 miles from the quakes epicenter, suffered widespread devastation. The strike-slip fault , On 31 May 2011, an unreleased draft report based on a survey commissioned by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) challenged the Haiti earthquake death toll and several damage estimates. These events are comparable, but not identical, in terms of the rupture zone and magnitude. the interpretation of results and discussion of ideas in this study. Both caused significant, damage in Port-au-Prince; several hundred fatalities were directly. Earthquake finite-fault model inversions of the DART waveform suggest that a reverse fault doublet with magnitudes of M6.8 and M6.5 located 85 km southwest of the epicenter may have excited the tsunami.  A 2013 survey disclosed that of the 1.5 million Haitians living in camps following the quake, about 279,000 remained in a total of 352 camps. the role of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates.  The supply backup at the airport was expected to ease as the apron management improved, and when the perceived need for heavy security diminished.  A 50-member Chinese team arrived early Thursday morning. On January 12, 2010, at 16:53:10 EST, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Haiti near the capital city of Port au Prince.The human devastation included 3,500,000 people having been directly affected by the quake. Shaking damage was more severe than for other quakes of similar magnitude due to the quake's shallow depth. , On 20 January, at 06:03 local time (11:03 UTC), the strongest aftershock since the earthquake, measuring magnitude 5.9 Mw, struck Haiti. The earthquake caused an urgent need for outside rescuers to communicate with Haitians whose main or only language is Haitian Creole. relative amounts of horizontal and vertical moment release along, the source faults imply along-strike (that is, horizontal) moment, using the slip inversion subfault moment-weighted average). The impact of a large magnitude earthquakes (M W > 7.0) and associated aftershocks can be devastating, for example, the 2011 Japan earthquake and Tsunami (Norio et al., 2011) or the Mw 7.0 earthquake in Haiti, 2010, ... Scott (2013) pointed out that it will cost the government of New Zealand $NZ 40 billion ($34 billion) to rebuilding Christchurch, following the February 2011 earthquake that claimed 185 people lives. Bull. The lack of surface deformation along the EPGF--which shows clear field evidence for Holocene, and probably historic surface rupture--and the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting implies that considerable shallow shear strain remains to be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGF, including the section adjacent to Port-au-Prince. (2013; hereafter denoted the F model), as well as four finite-source models with variable coseismic slip derived from combinations of GPS, InSAR, coastal uplift and teleseismic data, ... We tested a uniform slip of 1 m using the NEIC fault geometry and rupture mechanism, as in Fritz et al.  Amnesty International reported that armed men were preying with impunity on girls and women in displacement camps, worsening the trauma of victims who have lost homes, livelihoods and loved ones. , The 2010 cholera outbreak has continued. According to the report, relief and recovery were at a standstill due to government inaction and indecision on the part of the donor countries. Deformation and slip along the Sunda megathrust in the. ", Haitian grassroots groups advocated for the government to fulfill the right to housing as designated in the Haitian constitution, and for donor governments to support this as well. 84,935-953. involved slip on multiple faults and that slip along the EPGF was minimal or absent. A submarine eruption in Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island, was reported by Thomas Sutcliffe, the former British Governor, shortly after the earthquake that struck the coast of Chile on 20 February 1835. The function can be an L1 L2 norm or a correlative function based on the amplitude and scale of wavelet functions. , Many countries responded to the appeals and launched fund-raising efforts, as well as sending search and rescue teams.  The rupture was roughly 65 km (40 mi) long with mean slip of 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in). modelled by one or more shallow, blind thrust faults. Numbered blue squares repr, offset from the main EPGF, which dips steeply to the south, oriented thrust motions, in contrast to the dominantly strike-slip, mechanism of the mainshock. , Almost immediately Port-au-Prince's morgue facilities were overwhelmed. future analyses of other transpressional tectonic regimes worldwide. , Rescue efforts began in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, with able-bodied survivors extricating the living and the dead from the rubble of the many buildings that had collapsed. The, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. This devastating earthquake caused the death of more than 200,000 people, the injury of about 300,000 people, and left about two million people homeless. Apparently, the topography, structure, and major bathymetric feature underthrusting this part of the arc. southern California’s most devastating earthquake. The main road linking Port-au-Prince with Jacmel remained blocked ten days after the earthquake, hampering delivery of aid to Jacmel. The Dutch radio channels 3FM, Radio 538 and Radio Veronica all broadcast under the name of Radio555, funded by a contribution of €80 million. The magnitude 7 earthquake that leveled much of Haiti's capital Tuesday – the strongest temblor to hit the country in some 200 years -- may have increased strain on … A 7,0 M magnitude earthquake hit the republic of Haiti on the 12th of January 2010, and a numerous amount of aftershocks have later followed. Japan and Finland are among the few donors to have fully met their pledges. The Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Caribbean Region are vulnerable to natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis and tropical cyclones that can cause widespread devastation. The limited resolution, of our analysis prevents us from determining whether the EPGF, or, an unmapped, subparallel and blind fault or series of faults, is the, A puzzling geologic aspect of the 2010 Léogâne earthquake, trending, apparent tectonic fracturing and warping near Port, Royal that has normal-slip offsets up to 15 cm but no lateral, January; however, the feature does not clearly align with breaks in, the InSAR interferogram fringes, nor is the normal sense of motion, clearly represented in the seismologic source or aftershock moment, tensors. The earthquake was initially thought to have ruptured the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault of the southern To be honest, I don't know why it hasn't been done. This will still be on our radar screen long after it's off the crawler at CNN. , From 12 January, the International Committee of the Red Cross, which has been working in Haiti since 1994, focused on bringing emergency assistance to victims of the catastrophe. The InSAR-derived surface-deformation field can be adequately. In addition, the modeled fault dipped southward, whereas both the CMT solution and the interferometric syntheticaperture radar (InSAR) inversion (Hayes et al., 2010) suggested a north-dipping fault. 3. Research limitations/implications-This study have not tested the developed compliance framework. As corals grow, the density of the aragonite coral skeletons varies on an annual cycle, producing annual growth bands similar to tree rings. The agreement between the tsunami finite-fault source models and the seismic and tectonic evidence suggests that earthquakes on land, even strike-slip faults, can generate tsunamis by dynamically triggering offshore aftershocks. , On 5 February, ten Baptist missionaries from Idaho led by Laura Silsby were charged with criminal association and kidnapping for trying to smuggle 33 children out of Haiti. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquake—broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone—will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. " By 9 March 2010, all but Silsby were deported and she remained incarcerated. body wave analysis of the 1988 Armenian earthquake.  However, an investigation by Radio Netherlands has questioned the official death toll, reporting an estimate of 92,000 deaths as being a more realistic figure. The 1965 and 1973 events caused maximum uplifts of 120 and 60 cm, respectively, in the frontal arc. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to G.P.H. We also note the absence of any deposit or recent volcano morphology and then unravel some incompatibility between the expected volcanological parameters and the featured column. On January 12, 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti killing more than 200,000 people, leaving more than 1.5 million homeless, and destroying most governmental, technical, and educational infrastructure throughout this region of 3 million people. Human Rights Groups Urge Immediate Changes I...", "Tropical Storm Isaac douses Haiti, killing 4 before crossing Cuba and aiming at Florida", Aid workers prep Haiti's tent city residents for Isaac's onlsaught – World News, "65 dead as Hurricane Sandy crosses Caribbean; 'the whole south is under water,' says Haitian PM (with video)", "Haiti's disaster risk management and recovery experience showcased at GFDRR meeting", "LOOK: Haiti 3 Years Later: Where Has The Money Gone? Everywhere, the acrid smell of bodies hangs in the air. The compliance framework aims to enhance the resilience of the built environment through an easier and practical approach to communicating and managing code requirements. Information from the seismic wavefield also helps to discrimi-, nate the order of rupture of the dominant faults in our favoured.  Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. Negligence to building code compliance is the primary difference between the impact of 7.0 magnitude earthquake in the New Zealand and the Haiti, where the manageable earthquake hazard in New Zealand turned into a catastrophic disaster in Haiti (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2011. were jointly, responsible for the fault model. , In February 2010 Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings were severely damaged and needed to be demolished. and lack of surface rupture on the main fault zone imply that. investigations to document Quaternary activity on the The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained ... on the size and geometry of a ruptured area and on the state ... 2010, rupture, or if it is only a recent deformation. The M7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake along the Enriquillo Fault west of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, ruptured a complex fault network including both strike-slip and reverse faults (Hayes et al., 2010). Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking. most, and possibly all, of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, blind thrust fault north of the EPGFZ (Hayes et al., in press; Calais et al., in press).  According to Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), Radio Lumière, which broadcasts out of Port-au-Prince and reaches 90% of Haiti, was initially knocked off the air, but it was able to resume broadcasting across most of its network within a week. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden Fault … In short, the deformation pattern caused by the January 12 earthquake is not consistent with it occurring on the Enriquillo Fault. All their churches, chapels, and at least 8,000 homes were destroyed. It is revealed here that lithospheric-scale structures including fossil oceanic transform faults represent crustal and lithosphere-scale fractures in the crust that terminates the lateral spread of aftershocks. The earthquake was an unfortunate, confirmation of previous geodetic and geologic analyses, documented the potential for large, damaging earthquakes in, the region.  At least 85 United Nations personnel working with MINUSTAH were killed, among them the Mission Chief, Hédi Annabi, his deputy, Luiz Carlos da Costa, and police commissioner Douglas Coates. The 12 January 2010 M w 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. Geodetic models suggested that it accommodates 7±2 mm/yr of left-lateral slip, and historical accounts suggest it may be the source of at least three major historical earthquakes. the broader Caribbean–North America plate boundary (Fig. runs adjacent to the city of Port-au-Prince and was initially thought to We thank, R. Bilham and R. Koehler for early field observations of coastal deformation. There is no evidence of surface rupture; based on seismological, geological and ground deformation data, it is also thought that the earthquake did not involve significant lateral slip on the main Enriquillo fault. NPR found that the project was riddled with "multiple staffing changes", bureaucratic delays and a language barrier, as many of the Red Cross officials spoke neither French nor Haitian Creole. on the EPGF. Other nations from farther afield also sent personnel, medicines, materiel, and other aid to Haiti. We interpret four major coral emergence events as coseismic uplifts uiat occurred near the epicenters and times of large shallow earthquakes on January 5, 1946 (MS=7.3), August 11, 1965 (MS=7.5), October 27, 1971 (MS=7.1) and December 29, 1973 (MS=7.5). ", The Haiti 2010 earthquake has been depicted in the novel God Loves Haiti, by Dimitry Elias Léger. But the area of stress released by the fault rupture in that quake was restricted to only a 35- to 50-kilometer-long segment of the Enriquillo fault. This accumulated shear strain is equivalent, to about 2–3 m of slip, over an area of approximately 30 km, If released in one earthquake, this would result in an, event, manifesting the surface slip missing in the 2010 Léogâne, earthquake. In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method . Newly developed and very detailed 3D models of subducting plates (slabs) are combined with high-resolution topographic and bathymetric models of the crustal upper-plate and subducting lower-plate respectively to show how irregularities such as transform faults, spreading centers, fossil subduction zones and vertical tears form structural barriers to the spatial distribution of subduction zone aftershocks. The event occurred along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone, a major left-lateral strike-slip system that accommodates ~10 mm/yr of relative motion between the Gonave microplate and Caribbean plate. The supercarrier USS Carl Vinson arrived at maximum possible speed on 15 January with 600,000 emergency food rations, 100,000 ten-litre water containers, and an enhanced wing of 19 helicopters; 130,000 litres of drinking water were transferred to shore on the first day. There it caused flooding and 29 deaths according to local reporting. earthquakes is poorly known. GMT has been installed under UNIX on most types of workstations and both IBM-compatible and Macintosh personal computers.  Paul Mann and a group including the 2006 study team presented a hazard assessment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system to the 18th Caribbean Geologic Conference in March 2008, noting the large strain; the team recommended "high priority" historical geologic rupture studies, as the fault was fully locked and had recorded few earthquakes in the preceding 40 years. He went on to say that the number was rising instead of diminishing, and reported that the state had decided to first rebuild downtown Port-au-Prince and a new government center, but reconstruction had not yet begun. The applicability of the framework can be tested using different case studies. The 26-member international Interim Haiti Reconstruction Commission, headed by Bill Clinton and Haitian Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive, convened in June 2010. 15% of the camps had no basic protection services,[clarification needed] and 48% no health services. , In July 2010, CNN returned to Port-au-Prince and reported, "It looks like the quake just happened yesterday", and Imogen Wall, spokeswoman for the United Nations office of humanitarian affairs in Haiti, said that "six months from that time it may still look the same. This fault is responsible for about 80% of the moment released, during the event, and the inversion predicts maximum slip of, approximately 3.5 m. A south-dipping fault can also fit the observed, uplift (blue denotes subsidence). As rescues tailed off, supplies, medical care and sanitation became priorities. Rupture initiates on the steep EPGF (A, north-dipping blind thrust (Léogâne fault, B) is visible near the hypocentre and to the west.  In a 19 January press release MSF said, "It is like working in a war situation.  A hospital in Pétion-Ville, a wealthy suburb of Port-au-Prince, also collapsed, as did the St. Michel District Hospital in the southern town of Jacmel, which was the largest referral hospital in south-east Haiti. The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, is seismically active and has a history of destructive earthquakes. We don't have any more morphine to manage pain for our patients. , On 22 January the UN and United States formalised the coordination of relief efforts by signing an agreement giving the US responsibility for the ports, airports and roads, and making the UN and Haitian authorities responsible for law and order. To this end, the residential exposure of Guatemala and Guatemala City were used as case studies. In January 2011, one year after the quake, Oxfam published a report on the status of the recovery. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). 2010: Earthquake 1.  That committee is overseeing the US$5.3 billion pledged internationally for the first two years of Haiti's reconstruction. The, most likely source of this slip is a fault similar in orientation and, a complex surface expression in the rupture area, the EPGF. (INFOGRAPHIC)", "Haiti earthquake: Where has the aid money gone? In an interview, Kenneth Merten, the United States Ambassador to Haiti, stated that the US justice system would not interfere and that "the Haitian justice system will do what it has to do.  In late October, with over 370,000 still living in tent camps, a second tropical storm, Hurricane Sandy, killed 55 and left large portions of Haiti under water. The primary mode of deformation on the EPGF is left-lateral slip, as identified by surface geologic observations, Integration of the geodetic and seismologic data further, demonstrates that the 2010 Léogâne earthquake relieved only. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. During Haiti's time as a French colony, earthquakes were recorded by French historian Moreau de Saint-Méry (1750–1819). This suggests that prehistoric earthquake records in transpressive tectonic environments, such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of California, may be missing similarly complex earthquakes. The destructive Zirkuh-e-Qa'enat earthquake of 1997 May 10 (Mw 7.2, Ms 7.3, mb 6.3) produced 125 km of NNW-SSE right-lateral strike-slip surface faulting on the Abiz fault in the Sistan suture zone of eastern Iran: the longest known surface rupture associated with an Iranian earthquake. Fieldwork, studies were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development, USGS and, the National Science Foundation. The earthquakes on this conjugate system of strike-slip faults form a sequence that may have been triggered by the enhancement of stress on one fault as a result of slip on a neighbouring fault. & Solonenko, V. P. (eds), (Akademiya Nauk USSR, 1963) [in Russian] (English translation, US.  The United Nations peacekeeping force, widely believed responsible for the cholera outbreak, continues to refuse to accept responsibility, however, they have launched a $2.2 billion initiative to combat cholera and the construction of a $17 million teaching hospital in Mirebalais which will employ 800 Haitians and treat 185,000 people. There is no evidence of surface rupture; based on seismological, geological and ground deformation data, it is also thought that the earthquake did not involve significant lateral slip on the main Enriquillo fault. Brazil announced R$375 million for long-term recovery aid, R$25 million of which in immediate funds. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. ", The Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti, Let Haiti Live, and the Center for Constitutional Rights have recommended immediate changes to recovery efforts to ensure that critical human rights concerns are addressed.  Lt. Gen. P.K.  On 23 January 2010, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the federal government had lifted the limit on the amount of money allocated for matching individual donations to relief efforts, and that the federal government would continue to match individual donations until 12 February 2010; by the deadline, Canadians had privately raised C$220 million. We constrain the primary historical-washover deposit to 1810–1924 CE (2σ; 71% probability), a period characterised by extreme tectonic and meteorological events, which include the Great Kingston Earthquake of 1907 and a local episode of enhanced hurricane activity. Triangle diagrams provide a practical method for defining the fraction of normal, strike-slip, and thrust fault components for an earthquake and are a new graphical method for displaying source properties of groups of earthquakes.  By 19 January, staff of the International Red Cross had also managed to reach the town, which they described as "severely damaged ... the people there urgently need assistance. Both data and synthetic seismograms are transformed into wavelets, which are then separated into several groups based on their frequency content.  The border was reinforced by Dominican soldiers, and the government of the Dominican Republic asserted that all Haitians who crossed the border for medical assistance would be allowed to stay only temporarily. Vehicle for donors to have zero slip to match the observed coastal deformation funds provided by the 12! After the earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time ( 21:53 UTC ) Tuesday. Cores contain evidence of a receiver function study using teleseismic data recorded by these.!: where has the most recent set of events has been completely relaxed pain for our patients die the... The arc ] Ophelia Dahl, director of Partners in health, reported, it. 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